utorak, 14. svibnja 2013.

A short guide about rebuilding wooden ships

Kupinova's port bow during works
During the big project of rebuilding Kupinova in Marina Vinici, the crew who worked on the overhaul learned a lot about repairing old wooden ships - especially about replacing worn-out madijers which form the hull.

For a start, here's a little glossary of this profession's unique expressions:

Madijer - individual plank which forms outer hull of the ship
Kimenat - space between madijers
Stupar - skilled workman which fills kiments with ropes and stupa
Ponat - raw planks of different sizes from which madijers are cut out
Kolumba (Kobilica) - keel, the lowest part of the ship, massive row which connects and holds planking and the ribs of the ship - the backbone of the ship
Broke - one of many expressions for nails, those which hold madijers in their places in this example
Koper - finishing and the most resistant paint which is used to paint the lower part of the ship
Laptopirreplaceable tool in works under and around the ship - a box which holds tools and can serve as a chair

Works after removing worn-out brokas
Before the replacement of the old and worn-out madijers, it is first necessary to remove the old ones. Also, the nails, broke, have to be removed so they wouldn't stay in the wooden ribs and accelerate the process of rotting of the entire construction. After the removal of the nails, their holes have to be filled with special mass which will keep the integrity of the ribs and, therefore, of the entire ship.

After the preparations for new madijers, the space is measured, and with those measures workmen can look for a suitable ponat from which they will cut the madijer. Ponat must be of the suitable size and length, and free of worms, termites, holes, it mustn't be deeply damaged or have unsuitable lines inside. Special attention must be put to those lines going through the length of the wood. If they are badly placed, the piece of wood could break during further work. When, finally, the suitable piece is found, it is first being sketched by the measures and the then it is sawed to approximate size (notice - madijers are rarely shorter than 3 meters, so sawing of each piece requires team work of at least three people). When madijer is cut to its approximate size, it is then meticulously processed to its final and desired size.

None of the madijers is completely narrow and straight as it follows curved lines of the ship. Therefore, it is necessary to curve it - more or less, depending on its position in the hull. Curved form comes from heating - with the open flame or by cooking it. Cooking is performed by keeping the madijer in a long narrow tube filled with fresh water while under the tube a fire is kept - for at least half a day. After that kind of processing, madijer is ready for incurvation and it is placed on its designated place on the hull. It is left there until the next day so it would cool and form into desired shape in the process.

Preparations for new madijers
During one of many cookings
After getting the madijer in wanted form, it is nailed into place with nails made from zinc (they have to be made from zinc because they do not rust as fast as regular ones). After they are completely hammered into the wood, the nails have to be put even a little bit further so they would absolutely hold the madijer in its place. This is done using a small metal piece which is held on the head of the nail by one person and then the other person hammers onto the piece, putting the nail into the wood for additional 1-2 cm. This procedure has to be done on every nail (there are two nails for every rib, there is one rib every 20 centimeters, and Kupinova has 19 meters in total) and also very carefully so there would be no broken fingers or damaged madijers. When nails are completely hammered inside, small pits remain through the surface and they demand further and very detail processing.

Some of many many nails that needed to be processed

During hammering, zinc protection of the nails is damaged and it is necessary to renew it - especially on the head of the nail. The simplest way to do this is
galvanizing them with spray. After putting on new zinc with spray, it is left to dry before further work. Until you finish spraying each hole from bow to stern, those in the front are already completely dry so you can start with another assignment. That is filling the holes with base paint and after it has dried, each hole has to be completely filled with putty (once again - just when you finish with one work, you can go on the beginning of the ship an start with another).

Vedran is filling kiments with paint while sitting on laptop



Putty for this kind of job is prepared by mixing the appropriate powder with oil and base paint. After the putty has dried in each hole (that takes about a day) excess material has to be planished (with grinder and sand paper) so the surface would be completely smooth. When that is achieved, painting is next.

Painting of the underwater part of Kupinova is done in three parts: first, there is a layer of red base color which is followed by a layer of silver underwater primer. In the end, two layers of koper of pale red color are put on the entire surface of the underwater part of the ship.

Kiments partially filled with stupa
The part of work which is equally important as taking care of madijers is work around kiments - gaps between madijers. During placement of madijers, workmen are trying to put them in such a way that the space between them narrows toward the inner side. That space has to be filled with material so it would become watertight. This work is done by special workmen - stupars. Depending on the depth of the kimenat, they have to fill it woth couple of lines of rope which is - by the old rules of the craftsmanship - hammered in tight form using axes. When there is enough rope in individual kimenat, stupa is put over it. Stupa is a kind of greasier rope in thinner lines which hammered into place using small chisels.

Painting of koper on the hull
The last unfinished parts of the ship are those which were under the pillars which are holding the ship when it is outside of the sea. They are processed when the ship is lifted by a crane - just before the returning it to the sea.









Mostly finished Kupinova awaits return to the sea
As for now, Kupinova is acting good during sailing on daily excursions. Also, no larger leaks have been detected so it seems that all the hard work and investments in Marina Vinici really paid of.

srijeda, 8. svibnja 2013.

Kratki vodič kroz obnovu drevnih brodova


Lijevi bok Kupinove tokom radova

Kroz veliki projekt obnove Kupinove, u Marini Vinici na Murteru posada broda je naučila većinu detalja o obnovi drvenih brodova - ponajviše o zabijanju novih madijera u oplatu.

Za početak, ovdje je mali rječnik unikatnih pojmova specifičnih za ovu profesiju:

Madijer - pojedina daska vanjske oplate broda
Kimenat - prostor između madijera
Stupar - majstor koji konopom i stupom puni kimente
Ponat - sirove daske različitih duljina i širina iz kojih se izrezuju madijeri 
Kolumba (Kobilica) - najdonji dio broda, masivni rub koji spaja oplatu i rebra - kralježnica boda
Broke - jedan od mnogih izraza za čavle, u ovom primjeru one kojima se madijeri prikucajavaju na rebra 
Koper - završna i najotpornija boja kojom se premazuje podvodni dio broda
Laptop - nezamjenjiv alat u radu ispod i oko broda, kutija u kojoj se drži alat i na koju je moguće i sjesti

Sanacija nakon izvađenih broki
Prilikom zamjene dotrajalih madijera, potrebno je prvo ukloniti stare, te skupa sa njima maknuti i čavle, broke koji su ih držali kako ne bi ostali u drvenim rebrima broda te prilikom hrđanja ubrzali trunjenje drvene konstrukcije. Nakon izvlačenja starih čavala, potrebno je rupe napuniti smjesom koja će zadržati čvrstoću rebara te tako i cijelog broda.

Nakon pripreme terena za postavljanje novih madijera, mjeri se prostor te se po tim mjerama traži prikladan ponat. On mora biti prikladne duljine, te biti bez crva, rupa, dubljih oštečenja te čvorova u drvu. Također, važno je obratiti pozornost i na vene - crte koje idu uzdužnom dužinom kako drvo prilikom kasnije obrade ne bi popucalo. Kada se pronađe odgovarajući komad, prvo ga se iscrtava za piljenje, a zatim i pila u komadu (napomena - madijeri su rijetko kada kraći od bar tri metra, stoga i operacija pilanja zahtijeva timski rad barem troje ljudi). Kada se madijer približno pripremi, na red dolazi blanjanje kojim se do u detalje obrađuje te svodi na željenu dimenziju.

Kako nijedan madijer nije u potpunosti ravan, već slijedi zaobljene linije broda, potrebno ga je prije postavljanja više ili manje zakriviti. To se radi grijanjem drva - otvorenim plamenom ili kuhanjem na različite načine. Kuhanje se svodi na držanje madijera u cijevi napunjenoj vodom ispod koje se loži vatra - i to najmanje pola dana. Nakon takve obrade, madijer je spreman na krivljenje i postavlja se na predviđeno mjesto na trupu. Tu ga se ostavlja do sljedećeg dana kako bi se ohladio i u procesu iskrivio na željeni oblik.

Priprema prostora za postavljanje novog madijera
Kuhanje
Nakon što se postigne potrebna forma, madijer se prikucava na rebra pocinčanim čavlima koji teže hrđaju. Nakon što ih se zakuca do kraja, potrebno ih je i dodatno prekucati još dublje u trup kako bi se osigurali na svojim mjestima. Prekucavanje ili prenabijanje se radi tako da se na glavi čavla koji je zabijen do daske drži kratak klin sa drškom. Udaranjem po tom klinu se broka može nabiti još centimetar-dva u sam madijer. Tako nastaju male jamice koje zahtijevaju daljnju i vrlo detaljnu obradu.

Kako se prilikom zakucavanja i prenabijanja oštečuje cinčana zaštita čavala, potrebno ih je ponovno pocinčati na najizloženijem mjestu - glavi. To se najjednostavnije radi sprejanjem i hladnim cinčanjem nakon kojega se rupice ostavljaju sušiti. Slijedi punjenje jamica temeljnom bojom, a nakon sušenja boje na redu je kitovanje.


Pocinčane i djelomično zakitovane broke
Kit za ovakav zadatak se priprema mješavinom praška, ulja i temeljne boje te je njime potrebno potpuno ispuniti svaku rupu. Poslije punjenja kitom i (ponovnog) sušenja, površina se brusi (brusilicom i brusnim papirom) kako bi bila ravna. Nakon što je cijela površina madijera posve ravna slijedi bojanje.

Bojanje je na Kupinovoj obavljeno u tri dijela - temeljnom crvenom bojom preko koje se nanosi podvodni primer nakon čega su stavljena dva sloja kopera u blijedo crvenoj nijansi.

Vedran puni kimente koperom, sjedeći na laptopu
Posao koji je gotovo i važniji od brige za madijere je obrada kimenata - proreda koji se nalaze između madijera. Prilikom obrade i prireme samih madijera, nastoji ih se postaviti pod konusom, tako da je prostor između njih oblikovan u klin koji se sužava prema unutarnjoj strani. Taj se klin zatim puni konopcem i stupom, a to rade posebni majstori - stupari. Ovisno o dubini kimenta, u njih je potrebno naslagati i nekoliko redova konopca koji se zatim (po starim pravilima) nabijaju u čvrstu masu - najčešće sjekirom. Kada se kimenat dovoljno napuni, preko njega se zakucava stupa, masnije uže u tanjim nitima koje se malim dlijetima zakucava u procijep.

Kimenti djelomično napunjeni stupom

Nakon postavljanja materijala u kimente, i njih je potrebno prebojati i napuniti sa sva tri sloja boje - temeljnom, međuprijemazom i koperom.
Premazivanje prvim slojem kopera
Posljednji neobrađni dijelovi trupa (oni koji su se nalazili ispod nosača na kojima je brod stajao) se sređuju kada se brod podigne na dizalicu - neposredno pred vraćanje u more.
Po dosadašnjim iskustvima i vožnjama, Kupinova se ponaša dobro, a nisu zamijećena ni propuštanja oplate tako da se uložen trud isplatio.

Gotovo dovršena Kupinova čeka dizalicu i povratak u more

utorak, 26. ožujka 2013.

Discover Dubrovnik

Projekt koji je započeo na sveučilištu je postao koristan serijal kratkih dokumentarnih filmova o Dubrovniku. U nekoliko minuta koliko pojedina od 11 epizoda traje, saznajte osnove o Stradunu, gradskim zidinama, luci Gruž, četvrtima i sličnim manje ili više poznatim dijelovima Dubrovnika.



What started as a college project turned out to a very useful series of short documentaries about Dubrovnik. Discover Dubrovnik has 11 episodes about more and less known parts of Dubrovnik. In couple of minutes you can see the overview of the most important facts about Stradun, city walls, Port of Gruž, neighborhoods of Dubrovnik etc. The series is available with English subtitles as well, so turn them on their icon in the bottom of the screen if they do not start automatically.

utorak, 26. veljače 2013.

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nedjelja, 23. siječnja 2011.